Pentecost Traditions in Romania

Pentecost, known as “Rusalii” in Romania, is a significant religious and cultural celebration marking the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus Christ’s Apostles. Pentecost is also called Whit Sunday and Whit Monday. It is observed 50 days after Easter and is rich in traditions that blend Christian beliefs with local folklore. This year, Orthodox Romanian celebrate Pentecost on June 23-24.


Religious Practices

On Pentecost/Rusalii, Romanians attend church services where priests perform special prayers and rituals. It is customary to decorate the churches with green branches, symbolizing renewal and life. The faithful often bring flowers and herbs, such as mint and basil, to be blessed, which they then take home to protect against evil spirits.

Călușari Dance

One of the most vibrant and unique traditions associated with Rusalii is the “Călușari” dance. The Călușari are groups of men who perform intricate dances believed to have healing and protective powers. Dressed in white costumes with colorful ribbons and bells, they travel from village to village, bringing blessings and driving away malevolent spirits. The dance is accompanied by lively music played on fiddles and accordions, creating an energetic and joyful atmosphere.

Protection Against Spirits

Rusalii is also a time when many Romanians believe in the presence of supernatural beings. To protect themselves from these spirits, people hang garlic and wormwood on their doors and windows. Another common practice is to avoid working in the fields or doing any strenuous activity, as it is believed that the spirits are more active and might cause harm.

Feasting and Social Gatherings

Feasting is an integral part of Rusalii. Families and communities gather to enjoy traditional foods such as sarmale (cabbage rolls), cozonac (sweet bread), and various meats and cheeses. These gatherings foster a sense of community and reinforce social bonds.

Offerings and Remembrance

In some regions, it is customary to visit the graves of loved ones, bringing offerings of food, flowers, and candles. These acts of remembrance and respect for ancestors are a way of honoring their memory and seeking their blessings.

Nature and Renewal

Rusalii coincides with the early summer, a time when nature is in full bloom. However, this year is celebrated later in June, due to the fact that Orthodox Easter was marked in Early May. Many traditions emphasize the connection with nature, including the custom of young women washing their faces with water infused with flowers and herbs, believed to enhance beauty and bring good fortune.

Popular belief

According to popular belief, the Rusalii are enchanted spirits of the dead who refuse to return to the underworld after leaving their graves on Maundy Thursday to spend Easter with the living. To appease these spirits and avoid their wrath, people refrained from calling them Rusalii, instead referring to them by different names such as Iele, Zane (Fairies), or Frumoasele (Beautiful Ones). These spirits are said to dwell near springs, and through their songs, they have the power to drive people mad and cause illness.

Rusaliile are wandering dressed in white, dancing and searching for untravelled places. The locations where they danced remain burnt and infertile.

In conclusion, Rusalii in Romania is a rich tapestry of religious devotion, vibrant folklore, and communal activities. It is a time when ancient traditions come alive, offering a glimpse into the country’s deep-rooted cultural heritage.

basilCalusari danceJune 23-24OrthodoxPentecostRusalii
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