Last year, the lowest Research & Development (R&D) intensity was recorded, unfortunately, by Romania – 0.38 percent, Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union data show. With an R&D intensity below 1 percent, Romania was surpassed by Cyprus (0.47 percent), Latvia (0.68 percent), Croatia (0.79 percent), Bulgaria (0.80 percent), Greece (0.83 percent), Malta (0.85 percent), Slovakia (0.89 percent) and Poland (0.94 percent).
At the opposite top of the scale, last year the highest R&D intensities were recorded in the Nordic Member States: Finland (3.17 percent), Sweden (3.16 percent) and Denmark (3.08 percent), all with R&D expenditure above 3 percent of GDP, closely followed by Austria (2.99 percent) and Germany (2.84 percent). Belgium (2.46 percent), Slovenia (2.39 percent) and France (2.26 percent) registered R&D expenditure above 2 percent of GDP.
Compared with 2004, R&D intensity increased in twenty-three Member States, decreased in Croatia (from 1.03 percent in 2004 to 0.79 percent in 2014), Luxembourg (from 1.62 percent to 1.24 percent), Finland (from 3.31 percent to 3.17 percent) and Sweden (from 3.39 percent to 3.16 percent), and remained stable in Romania.
According to the same Eurostat data, the main sector in which R&D was performed in 2014 was the business enterprise sector in all Member States, except Estonia, Greece, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania (where the higher education sector was the dominant performing sector) and Romania (where almost half of R&D expenditure was conducted within the government sector).
The highest shares of R&D expenditure performed in the business sector were observed in Slovenia (77 percent), Ireland (73 percent), Hungary (72 percent), Belgium and Austria (both 71 percent), Germany and Finland (both 68 percent), Sweden (67 percent), Bulgaria and France (both 65 percent), Denmark and the United Kingdom (both 64 percent).
For the government sector, the highest share was registered in Romania (43 percent), followed at a distance by Luxembourg (29 percent), Slovakia (28 percent), Greece (27 percent), Croatia (26 percent), Bulgaria (25 percent), Latvia and Poland (both 24 percent). The highest shares of R&D conducted within the higher education sector were recorded in Cyprus and Lithuania (both 53 percent), Portugal (45 percent), Estonia (44 percent), Latvia (41 percent) and Greece (38 percent).
In 2014, the Member States of the European Union (EU) spent all together around EUR 283 billion on R&D.