July 23, commemoration of Egyptian revolution of 1952

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Egypt celebrates its national day on July 23 to commemorate the Egyptian revolution that took place on this day in 1952. The revolution led to an ouster of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic form of government.

Egypt gained nominal independence from the British in 1922, and signed the Anglo-Egyptian treaty in 1936 that allowed the British to retain their troops in the Suez Canal region. After the Second World War the Egyptians tried to renegotiate the terms of the treaty as resentment against the continued British presence on the Egyptian soil and the disenchantment with the despotic, pro-British monarch, Farouk I, grew in the common people.

The final blow came with the defeat of Egypt in the Arab-Israeli war in 1948 for which the army blamed the king. The Egyptian Revolution was launched as a military coup by four army officers – Muhammed Naguib, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Abdel Hakim Amer and Anwar Al Sadat, who formed the Free Officer’s Movement, which led to eradication of constitutional monarchy, and establishment of a nationalist government in Egypt. Muhammed Naguib became the first president of the Egyptian republic.

The national day is a public holiday in Egypt. It is marked with national celebrations and military parades. On this day the people of the country participate in many musical and dance performances honoring the sacrifices of the martyrs and remembering the sacrifices that shaped the country’s destiny.

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